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Nitric oxide measurement, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, radical generating systems, photo dynamic therapy
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Nitric oxide is the driving force behind oxidative stress. To elucidate its origins and mechanisms may help reducing oxidative stress.
(Muller et al. 2003)
Sodium nitroprusside and low-molecular weight S-nitrosothiols are some of the nitric oxide (NO) donors that cause vasodilatation, which means that effected arteries cannot contract. Circulation will decelerate. It may even collapse. Medicinal studies from the late 1990s identified oxidative stress as the main cause. At the same time the question arose if the NO free radical really is the main culprit. In fact, nitrosation of cystein‘s sulphydryl group is more likely to have a longterm effect.
high efficiency of nitric oxide spin trapping
basal as well as stimulated nitric oxide production can be quantified in aorta and vena cava
colloid Fe(II)(DETC)2 is lipophilic and “water-soluble”
Cu(DETC)2-signal doesn't dominate over the NO- Fe(II)(DETC)2Signal
no inhibition of vascular SOD activity
nitric oxide detection is not affected by moderately increased levels of extracellular superoxide and nitrite.
(Muller et al. 2003)
NO-donors were tested in their ability to contradict norepinephrine (NE), which causes artery contraction. To keep results independent from animal species, observation went down in porcine coronary arteries as well as rat aorta. Two categories of NO-donors have been found:
1) NE deactivating species, such as GSNO, SNAP, SNAC & SNP, cause NE to respond significantly less
2) not NE affecting species, such as DEA-NO, SIN-1, GTN & CysNO, which did inhibit artery contraction
Ning Xia, Sven Horke, Alice Habermeier, Ellen I. Closs, Gisela Reifenberg, Adrian Gericke, Yuliya Mikhed, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber, Ulrich Foerstermann, Huige Li (2016) Uncoupling of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Perivascular Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 36, 78-85
Irina Lobyscheva, Miguel Romero, Elviran Leon-Gomez, Géraldine Rath, Jean-Michel Dogné, Olivier Feron, and Chantal Dessy (2016) Effect of BM-573 on endothelial dependent relaxation and increased blood pressure at early stages of Artheriosclerosis. PLOS one, DOI 10.1371
Bernard Muller, Jacicarlos L. Alenscar, Irina Lobysheva, Karel Chalupsky, Michel Geffard, Franc Oise Nepveu and Jean-Claude Stoclet (2003) S-Nitrosating Nitric Oxide Donors Induce Long-Lasting Inhibition of Contraction in Isolated Arteries. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 307, 152-159
K. Chalupsky, H. Cai (2005) Endothelial dihydrofolate reductase: Critical for nitric oxide bioavailability and role in angiotensin II uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PNAS 102, 9056-9061
Andrei L. Kleschyov, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Muenzel (2007) Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping of biological nitric oxide. Journal of Chromatography B 851, 12-20
Andrei L. Kleschyov, Thomas Muenzel, (2002) Advanced spin trapping of vascular nitric oxide using colloid iron diethyldithiocarbamate. Methods in Enzymology 359, 42-51
Andrei L. Kleschyov, Hanke Mollnau, Matthias Oelze, Thomas Meinertz, Yale Huang, David G. Harrison, Thomas Münzel (2000) Spin Trapping of Vascular Nitric Oxide Using Colloid Fe(II)-Diethyldithiocarbamate. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 275, 672-677
Andrei L. Kleschyov (2017) www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584917307414The NO-heme signaling hypothesis. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 112, 544-552